We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.
[Note: The number of Representatives in the U.S. House of Representatives was capped at 435 by the "Permanent Apportionment Act" of 1929.]
The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States …
No person shall be a representative who shall not have attained the age of twenty-five years and have been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.
[Translation (eliminating the double-negatives): To be a Representative in the U.S. House of Representatives, a male or female must be at least 25 years old, must have been a U.S. citizen for at least 7 years AND must be an inhabitant of that State which elected him/her.]
[Note 1: Being born in the U.S. is NOT a requirement for a U.S House Representative --- not the case for the U.S. President]
[Note 2: See Amendment 14, "Civil Rights", Sections 2 & 3]
Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers...
The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by Law direct.
[Note 1: This is the Constitutional basis for the U.S. Census]
[Note 2: See Amendment 14, "Civil Rights", Sections 2 & 3.]
[Note 3: Enumerate means to establish the number of whatever is being counted. Herein it means to establish the number of people living in the U.S. That would be "people" of any age, any ethnicity, any race, etc.]
[Note 4: "The actual enumeration shall be made … every 10 years …” connects to Paragraph 3 Clause 1 which mentions each State’s respective numbers in each State i.e. enumerate (establish the number of) people in each State.]
[Note 5: "In such manner as they shall by Law direct" had not yet been established.]
The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.
The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.
[Note 1: Superseded by Amendment 17 "Senatorial elections"]
[Note 2: See Amendment 14, "Civil Rights", Section 3]
[Note 3: The aspect that "2 for each State" throws things out of kilter when you consider that per the last U.S. Census, 26 of the least populated States have 15% of the U.S. population and they elect 52% of the U.S. Senate. (See Amendment 17, notes 1a & 1b below)]
Let’s repeat that:
· 15% of the U.S. population elect 52% of the U.S. Senate.
No person shall be a senator who shall not have attained the age of thirty years and have been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen. [Translation (eliminating the double-negatives): To be a Senator in the U.S. Senate, a male or female must be at least 30 years old, must have been a U.S. citizen for at least 9 years AND must be an inhabitant of that State which elected him/her.]
[Note: Being born in the U.S. is NOT a requirement for a U.S. Senator --- unlike the U.S. President.]
The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided. (To break a Tie vote)
The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds (67%) of the Members present. [Note the word "present"; there are a total of 100 U.S. senators, but for example, in Nov 2018, there were 99 members present due to the death of John McCain.]
Judgment in Cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.
The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of chusing Senators. …
Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.
Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behavior, and, with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member. [Note that the creation of the "Rules of the Senate” and the "Rules of the House” are AUTHORIZED by this Section. However, the actual rules that result are themselves NOT part the U.S. Constitution.]
All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills.
Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States: If he approves, he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. [Note: This is a way Congress can override a Presidential Veto].
But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.
Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill. [Note: This is a way Congress may override a Presidential veto.]
The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defense and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;
· To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;
· To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes;
· To coin Money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures
· To establish Post Offices and Post Roads;
· To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;
· To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;
· To provide and maintain a Navy;
· To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces;
· To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;
· To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;
· To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof. [Note: The above, by name, specifically calls for an Army, a Navy and a Militia. A Militia, in present day terms, equates to the National Guard. Later, the Marine Corps, Air Force, Coast Guard and Space Force were legally created --- they were not specifically named in the Constitution.]
The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to 1808, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding $10 per person.
No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken.
No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.
The executive Power shall be vested in the President of the United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of 4 years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows:
[Note: by use of the pronouns "He” and "his”, it is obvious that the Founders NEVER expected a woman President.]
Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.
[Note: See Amendment 12]
The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes, which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.
[Note: State electors meet in their respective State capitals the 1st Monday after the 2nd Wednesday of December to cast their votes]
No person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to the Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty-five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.
In Case of removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Officer, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.
The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them.
Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation: -- 'I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of the President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.'
[Note: by use of the pronouns "He” & "His", it is obvious that the Founders NEVER anticipated a woman President.]
[Note: the ambivalence herein is in the phrase: "will to the best of my Ability”]
The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of any Militia of the several States, when called into actual service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principle officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any subject relating to the Duties of their respective offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offenses against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment. [This only applies to current or former Federal employees who committed Federal crimes. POTUS cannot pardon anyone for State crimes.]
He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided 2/3 of the Senators present concur …
The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.
The judicial Power of the United States shall be vested in one Supreme Court and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the Supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behavior, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.
[What has been established (as of 2020) is the following:
· 3 levels of Federal courts (108 courts in total):
o 1st Level is the 13 Circuit Courts (1st Level of Appeal courts)
o 2nd Level is the 94 District Courts (Trial courts)
o 3rd & Final Level is the Supreme Court
[Note: While one Supreme Court is specified in the Constitution, the number of Justices on the Supreme Court was not specified in the constitution. There have been 9 Supreme Court Justices for a long time. It is arbitrary.]
The judicial Power shall extend to all cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, and Laws of the United States, ... to Controversies between two or more States, ...
In all cases ... in which a State shall be Party ... the Supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. ...
Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.
The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason … .
Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved and the effect thereof.
The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and immunities of Citizens in the several States.
A person charged in any State with Treason, Felony or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the crime.
New States my be added by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.
The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claim of the United States, or of any particular State.
The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened), against domestic violence.
The Congress, whenever 2/3 of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of 2/3 of the 50 States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of 3/4 of the 50 States, or by Conventions in 3/4 thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to 1808 shall in any manner affect the first & fourth Clauses in the 9th Section of Article 1; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.
[Note: This "Convention for proposing Amendments” is typically referred to as a Constitutional Convention. NO RULES are noted herein for how this Convention is run; nor is who controls what happens and when; nor is how this Convention shall arrive at a conclusion; other than by a vote of whoever is allowed to attend said "Convention.]
[3rd Clause] The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.
The Ratification of the Constitution of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.
[Note 1: Article VII is historical and totally irrelevant today. Yet, it will never be removed or labeled as "historical”. Not, at least, until political partisanship has simmered down AND not until "outside" money has gotten out of politics.]
[Note 2: Imagine what the Founders would have done, had they any way of knowing that the United States would eventually consist of 50 States --- 2 of which are not contiguous with any of the other States; and that the United States would occupy all of the land between the Atlantic ocean and the Pacific ocean, from Mexico to Canada.]
[Note: The first 10 Amendments were fashioned by James Madison and are commonly referred to as the Bill of Rights.]
Amendment 1: Freedom, Petitions, Assembly (1791)
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press, or the right of people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for redress of grievances.
[Note: It is a stretch to consider that the words "… abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press …” allow any persons and/or TV talking heads to outright lie --- especially when those lies are damaging --- compounded if those lies contribute to damaging the reputation of the United States itself or the current political leaders of the United States. Such lies led to our Slander and Libel laws.]
Amendment 2: Right to bear arms (1791)
A well-regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.
[Note 1: A "well-regulated Militia" in today's culture implies the National Guard in each State. The term Militia can be interpreted to allow States the right to establish their own State Force to protect their State. All 50 States have banned "Militias” per se --- if needed, States depend on their local National Guard contingent.]
[Note 2: Amendment 2, as part of the Bill of Rights (Amendments 1-10) was ratified December 15, 1791. The typical "Arms" available in 1791 were single-shot pistols and single-shot muskets. There were no automatic weapons and no high-capacity magazines.]
Amendment 3: Quartering of Soldiers (1791)
No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
Amendment 4: Search and Arrest (1791)
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable search and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
[Note: Domestic Terrorism --- There are laws on the books about International Terrorism; none on Domestic Terrorism. That needs to be addressed. The main concern is that it (by definition) involves American citizens. Any Domestic Terrorism law must respect the 4th Amendment.]
Amendment 5: Rights in criminal cases (1791)
No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb, nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
Amendment 6: Right to a fair trial (1791)
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed; which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.
Amendment 7: Rights in civil cases (1791)
In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court in the United States, than according to the rules of common law.
Amendment 8: Bail, fines, punishment (1791)
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishment inflicted.
Amendment 9: Rights retained by the People (1791)
The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
Amendment 10: States' Rights (1791)
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
Amendment 11: Lawsuits against States (1795)
The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.
[Note: The 11th Amendment’s text prohibits the federal courts from hearing certain lawsuits against States. The Amendment has also been interpreted to mean that State courts do not have to hear certain suits against the State if those suits are based on federal law."
During the debates over whether to ratify the Constitution, controversy arose over one provision of Article III that allowed federal courts to hear disputes "between” a State and citizens of another State, or citizens or subjects of a foreign state.]
Amendment 12: Presidential Elections (1804)
The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for President and Vice President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves;
they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they will sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate;
[Note: the "President of the Senate” is the current Vice President of the United States.]
The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and the House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted; the person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed;
And if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list, of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, representation from each State having one vote;
a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from 2/3 of the States [i.e. 33 States], and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. …
The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice President, shall be the Vice President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Elector appointed; and if no person have such a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice President;
A quorum for the purpose shall consist of 2/3 of the whole number of Senators [i.e. 66 Senators], and a majority of the whole shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office President shall be eligible to that of the Vice President of the United States.
Superseded by Section 3 of Amendment 20
Amendment 13: Abolition of Slavery (1865)
Section 1: Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof that party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.
Amendment 14: Civil Rights (1868)
Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States, nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis for representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age is such State.
[Note: Amendment 26 specifies rights for "citizens" vis-à-vis "male inhabitants" or "male citizens" , and for U.S. citizens "18 years old" vis-à-vis "21 years old."]
Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellionagainst the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.
[Supposedly Section 3 was written at the end of the Civil War to prevent any Confederate, who had previously taken an oath to the United States, from holding any office of importance.]
Section 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.
Section 5. The congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.
Amendment 15: Black suffrage (1870)
Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
[Note 1: Suffrage means the "right to vote in political elections”.]
[Note 2: The 15th amendment allowed, for the very first time, any U.S. Citizen the right to vote --- not just blacks but women and any slaves of any color. There were other restrictions e.g. could not own property, that prevented women from exercising this right to vote; that was resolved by the 19th Amendment, passed 50 years later, in 1920.]
[Note 3: Do not forget, the 13th Amendment abolished slavery; and the 14th Amendment states that all persons born in the U.S are citizens of the U.S.]
Amendment 17: Senatorial Elections (1913)
The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote.
[Note 1a: The 50 States in the U.S. get a total of 100 Senators (2 per State) in the U.S. Senate --- 26 of those 50 States, with the least population per the Census, make up 15% of the U.S. population. Those 26 States range from #25 Louisiana to #50 Wyoming.
[Note 1b: The 26 least populated States have 15% of the total U.S. population with which they elect 52 Senators (52%) in the U.S. Senate.]
To repeat: 15% of the U.S. population elect 52% of the U.S. Senate.
[Note 2: The U.S. House of Representatives will adjust as population is built into how many Reps any State has in the U.S. House. The number of Representatives in the House was capped at 435 by the "Permanent Apportionment Act" of 1929. Population has nothing to do with the U.S. Senate. Political parties will have to invest in the smaller States to maintain their influence in the U.S. Senate.]
[Note 3: When our Founders wrote the Constitution, they did not trust the people living in each State, to elect the U.S. Senators for their own State. This can be seen by reading the original Article I, Section 3. It is amended by Amendment 17.]
[Note 4a: The United States consisted of 13 States in 1788 when the 9th State ratified the U.S. Constitution. Our Founders probably did not consider that the U.S. would expand greatly to a footprint encompassing a land mass from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean and adding 37 States.]
[Note 4b: Our Founders probably did not consider the ramifications of 63% of the U.S. population residing in less than 32% of all the States; leaving the other 37% of the U.S. population with the power to elect 67% of the 100 Senators in the U.S. Senate. However, if they were that insightful, then they intended to make it clear that those with substantial influence, best put adequate resources (money and talent) into the less-populated States.]
Amendment 19: Women’s suffrage (1920)
Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.
Amendment 20: Terms of Office (1933)
Section 1. The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3rd day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended … and the terms of their successors shall then begin.
Section 2. The Congress [Senate and House] shall assemble at least once every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon of the 3rd day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.
Section 3. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President.
If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of the term, or if the President-Elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President-Elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President-Elect nor a Vice President-Elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.
Amendment 22: Term Limits for the Presidency (1951)
Section 1. No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than 2 years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office President more than once. ...
[Note: There is NO Amendment for Term Limits of a 1) U.S. House of Representative, or 2) U.S. Senator; or no Age Limits for Federal Court Judges.]
Amendment 25: Presidential Succession (1967)
Section 1. In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President."
Section 2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress (Senate and House of Representatives).
Section 3. Whenever the President transmits to the President Pro Tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as acting President.
Section 4. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the Executive Departments or of such other body as Congress (Senate or House) may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.
Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President Pro Tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the Executive Department or of such other body as Congress (Senate or House) may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President Pro Tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office.
Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.
Amendment 26: 18-year-old suffrage (1971)
Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age.
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