•  Legislative
  •  Judicial
  • Executive


Legislative Branch

The Legislative Branch (aka Congress) consists of 2 chambers: the U.S. Senate with 100 Senators (2 per State) and the U.S. House of Representatives (based on population). There are, by law, 435 representatives in the House --- based on each State's population as a percentage of the U.S. Population. The Legislative Branch is responsible for creating laws. 


The Constitution does not provide for, in the House of Representatives, representation of the District of Columbia or territories. Washington DC and the territories of Puerto RicoAmerican SamoaGuam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the U.S. Virgin Islands are each represented by one non-voting delegate. Puerto Rico elects a resident commissioner, but other than having a 4-year term, the resident commissioner's role is identical to delegates from other territories. The 4 delegates and resident commissioner may participate in debates.




Judicial Branch

The Judicial Branch is made up of 107 courts known as the Federal Court System. They are responsible for ruling on cases that come to them from lower courts in respect to the validity of relevant laws that Congress has passed, as well as the U.S. Constitution and all pertinent earlier court findings. 

There are 3 levels of the Federal Court System:

1.   Supreme Court

2.   Appeals Courts

3.   District Courts


The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one Supreme Court --- this is the only court specifically referenced in the Constitution (Article III, Section 1); and in such inferior courts as the Congress ... shall establish. The number of judges on the Supreme Court is not stated in the Constitution --- however currently there are 9 Federal Judges on the Supreme Court.


There is a 2nd Level of inferior courts known as the 12 regional Appeals Courts aka Court of Appeals aka Circuit Courts.


There is a 3rd Level of inferior courts known as the 94 District Courts aka District Judicial Courts. These make up the lowest level of the Federal Courts and are the original jurisdiction for most cases. They cover all 50 States and Territories.


Executive Branch

The Executive Branch consists of the U.S. President and various other positions that go with that office. The lack of specific, detailed language in the Constitution on such things as "Executive Orders", "Commander in Chief" and the "Pardon" powers, has given the President of the U.S. (POTUS) a great deal of nebulous power and flexibility. 

Today, the Executive Branch consists of over 3 million people; other than the Vice President, all the rest of them are appointed or hired --- many appointees require Senate confirmation. 


President Biden's Cabinet, top 15 picks plus other key roles, for his Executive Office follow. [Biden’s Cabinet is listed in their order in the line of succession to the Presidency.]

            (Names in Bold Type are confirmed; or did not need confirmation)


 1)  Dept of State … Secretary of State - Antony "Tony" Blinken

 2)  Dept of the Treasury … Secretary of the Treasury - Janet Yellen

 3)  Dept of Defense … Secretary of Defense - Lloyd J. Austin III

 4)  Dept of Justice … Attorney General - Merrick Garland

 5)  Dept of the Interior … Secretary of the Interior - Deb Haaland

 6)  Dept of Agriculture … Secretary of Agriculture - Tom Vilsack

 7)  Dept of Commerce … Commerce Secretary - Gina Raimondo

 8)  Dept of Labor … Labor Secretary - Marty Walsh

 9)  Dept of Health & Human Services (HHS) … HHS Secretary - Xavier Becerra

10) Dept of Housing & Urban Development (HUD) … HUD Secretary - Marcia L. Fudge

11) Dept of Transportation … Secretary of Transportation - Pete Buttigieg

12) Dept of Energy … Secretary of Energy - Jennifer Granholm

13) Dept of Education … Secretary of Education - Miquel Cardona

14) Dept of Veterans Affairs … VA Secretary - Denis McDonough

15) Dept of Homeland Security … Secretary of Homeland Security Alejandro Mayorkas



            Key White House Staff (No Confirmation needed)           

    ·       White House Chief of Staff … Ron Klain

·       White House Press Secretary … Jen Psaki

·       White House Climate Czar … Gina McCarthy

  •   White House Communications Director … Kate Bedingfield 

·       White House Senior Advisor to COVID-19 Response Team … Andy Slavitt

·       White House Senior Advisor to the President ... Neera Tanden

·       Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) Director … Dr. Rochelle Walensky

·       Chief Medical Adviser on COVID-19 … Dr. Anthony "Tony" Fauci

·       Chief Science Officer for COVID-19 Response … David Kessler

·       Deputy Chief of Staff … Bruce Reed

·       National Security Adviser … Jake Sullivan

·       COVID-19 Response Coordinator … Jeff Zients

·       Special Presidential Envoy for Climate … Mr. John Kerry

·      Director, Domestic Policy Council … Director Susan Rice

·      Director, National Economic Council - Director Brian Deese 

·      Member, Council of Economic Advisors - Heather Boushey 

  •   Director, Office of Public Engagement … Director Cedric Richmond

·     Director, Office of Legislative Affairs  Director Louisa Terrell

·     Director, Office of Intergovernmental Affairs ... Director Julie Chavez Rodiquez


                                          Other Key Staff (Top Positions)

·     Director, Office of National Intelligence (DNI) ... Director Avril Haines  

·     Director, Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) ... CIA Director William Burns 

·     Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) ... FBI Director Christopher "Chris" Wray  

·     Director, Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) … FEMA Director Deanne Criswell  

·     Director, Federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms & Explosives (ATF) … ATF Nominee David Chipman

  •  Director, Office of Personnel Management (OPM) … OPM Director Kiran Arjandas Ahujavid 
  • Director of National Counterterrorism Center, DNI ... Christy Abizaid 
  •  Deputy Secretary of State … Wendy Sherman 
  • Deputy Attorney General … Lisa Monaco 
  • Associate Attorney General … Vanita Gupta
  • Deputy Secretary, Dept of Defense … Kathleen Hicks  
  • Deputy Secretary, Dept of Homeland Security … John Tien 
  • Deputy Secretary, Dept of the Treasury … Wally Adeyemo 
  • Deputy Secretary, Dept of Energy … David Turk
  • Deputy Secretary, Dept of Commerce … Don Graves
  •  Deputy Secretary for HUD ... Adrianne Todman
  •  Deputy Secretary, HHS ... Andrea Palm
  • Deputy Secretary, Dept of Transportation … Polly Trottenberg  
  • Deputy Secretary, Dept of Education … Cindy Marten  
  • Deputy Secretary, Dept of Agriculture … Jewel H. Bronaugh  
  • Deputy Secretary, Dept of VA … Donald Remy  
  • Deputy Secretary, Dept of Interior … Tommy Beaudreau
  • Deputy Secretary, Dept of Labor … Julie Su    
  • Deputy Secretary for Mgmt & Resources, Dept of State … Brian P. McKeon  
  •  Administrator, U.S. Agency for International Development ... Samantha Power

·     Administrator, Small Business Administration (SBA) ... SBA Administrator Isabel Guzman 

·    Administrator, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ... EPA Administrator Michael S. Regan 

·    Administrator, Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) ... DEA Administrator Anne Milgram 

  • Administrator, National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) ... Bill Nelson 
  • Administrator, Federal Transit Administration for Dept of Transportation ... Nuria Fernandez 
  • Chairman, Securities & Exchange Commission (SEC) … Gary Gensler 
  • Chairman, Council of Economic Advisers ... Cecilia Rouse 
  • Chairman, Council on Environmental Quality … Brenda Mallory 
  • Surgeon General, HHS ... Vivek Murthy 
  • U.S. Representative to the United Nations, Dept of State ... Linda Thomas-Greenfield 
  • U.S. Trade Representative ... Katherine Tai 
  • White House Office of Science & Technology Policy ... Eric Lander 
      ·    National Cyber Director, Executive Officer of the President ... Chris Inglis
      ·    Commissioner, Federal Trade Commission ... Lina Khan 
  • Inspector General, CIA ... Robin Ashton 


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